John Lyons Language and Linguistics An Introduction PDF Download
If you are looking for a general introduction to linguistics and the study of language, you may be interested in John Lyons' book Language and Linguistics: An Introduction. This book was published in 1981 by Cambridge University Press and is intended for beginning students and readers with no previous knowledge or training in the subject. In this article, we will give you a brief overview of the book and provide some links where you can download it in PDF format.
What is the book about?
The book covers the main sub-fields of linguistics, such as the sounds of language, grammar, semantics, language change, psycholinguistics, language and culture, and some modern schools and movements. It also discusses the nature of language, the aims, methods and basic principles of linguistic theory, and the relation between linguistics and other disciplines. The book emphasizes the cultural as well as the biological context of human language, and shows how linguistic concerns connect productively with those of the traditional humanities and the social sciences.
The book is divided into eight chapters, each with a set of discussion questions, revision exercises, and suggestions for further reading. The chapters are as follows:
Language: This chapter defines language and its properties, such as arbitrariness, productivity, structure, system, diversity, and change. It also distinguishes between language behavior and language systems, language and speech, the semiotic point of view, the fiction of homogeneity, and the absence of primitive languages.
Linguistics: This chapter introduces linguistics as a scientific discipline that studies language. It explains the terminology and notation used by linguists, the distinction between descriptive and prescriptive approaches, the priority of synchronic over diachronic description, and the concepts of structure and system.
The sounds of language: This chapter deals with phonetics and phonology, the branches of linguistics that study the sounds of language. It describes how sounds are produced by the vocal organs (articulatory phonetics), how they are represented by symbols (phonetic transcription), how they are organized into meaningful units (phonemes and allophones), how they are characterized by distinctive features (segmental and suprasegmental phonology), and how they are structured into patterns (phonological structure).
Grammar: This chapter covers grammar, the branch of linguistics that studies the rules that govern the formation of words and sentences in a language. It discusses the concepts of grammatical productivity and arbitrariness, parts of speech (form classes) and grammatical categories (such as number, gender, case, tense, aspect, mood), constituent structure (the way words are combined into phrases and sentences), and generative grammar (a formal approach to grammar that aims to capture the innate linguistic competence of speakers).
Semantics: This chapter focuses on semantics, the branch of linguistics that studies the meaning of words and sentences in a language. It explores the phenomena of homonymy (words with different meanings but same form), polysemy (words with multiple related meanings), synonymy (words with same or similar meanings), sense and denotation (the abstract and concrete aspects of meaning), semantics and grammar (the interaction between meaning and form), sentence meaning and utterance meaning (the distinction between what is said and what is meant), and formal semantics (a logical approach to meaning that uses mathematical notation).
Language change: This chapter examines language change, the process by which languages evolve over time. It introduces the concept of language families (groups of languages that share a common ancestor), the comparative method (a technique for reconstructing the history of languages based on similarities and differences among them), analogy and borrowing (two sources of linguistic innovation that involve copying or adapting forms from other languages or within a language), and the causes of language change (such as social contact, linguistic interference, psychological factors).
Some modern schools and movements: This chapter surveys some modern schools and movements in linguistics that have emerged in the 20th century. It describes structuralism (a methodological approach that emphasizes the analysis of linguistic systems based on observable data), functionalism (a theoretical approach that emphasizes the role of language as a tool for communication and cognition), generativism (a paradigm that views language as an innate faculty governed by universal principles), among others.
Language and mind: This chapter explores the relation between language and mind from various perspectives. It discusses mentalism (a philosophical stance that regards language as a mental phenomenon), rationalism and innateness (a view that assumes that humans are born with a natural capacity for language), language and the brain (the study of the neural basis of language and its disorders), language acquisition (the process by which children learn their native language), other areas of psycholinguistics (such as speech perception, speech production, language comprehension, language processing, memory, and reasoning), and cognitive science and artificial intelligence (the interdisciplinary fields that investigate the nature of intelligence and its simulation by machines).
Where can I download the book?
If you want to download the book in PDF format, you can find it on several websites. However, please note that some of these websites may not have the legal rights to distribute the book, and that downloading it may violate the author's or the publisher's copyrights. Therefore, we recommend that you check the legitimacy of the source before downloading the book. Here are some links where you can find the book:
[Cambridge University Press]: This is the official website of the publisher of the book. You can buy the book in hardback or paperback format, or access it online through Cambridge Core, a platform that provides access to academic books and journals. You will need to create an account and pay a fee to access the book.
[Google Books]: This is a service that allows you to search and preview millions of books from various sources. You can view some pages of the book for free, but you will need to buy or borrow it to read the full text. You can also download a PDF version of the book, but it may have some restrictions or limitations.
[Cambridge University Press & Assessment]: This is a PDF file that contains the front matter of the book, including the title page, the table of contents, the preface, and the acknowledgments. You can download it for free from this website.
In this article, we have given you a brief overview of John Lyons' book Language and Linguistics: An Introduction, and provided some links where you can download it in PDF format. We hope that this article has been helpful for you, and that you will enjoy reading this book.